A study of gay men in the US has found fresh evidence that male sexual orientation is influenced by genes. Scientists tested the DNA of 400 gay men and found that genes on at least two chromosomes affected whether a man was gay or straight.
A region of the X chromosome called Xq28 had some impact on men’s sexual behaviour – though scientists have no idea which of the many genes in the region are involved, nor how many lie elsewhere in the genome.
Another stretch of DNA on chromosome 8 also played a role in male sexual orientation – though again the precise mechanism is unclear.
Researchers have speculated in the past that genes linked to homosexuality in men may have survived evolution because they happened to make women who carried them more fertile. This may be the case for genes in the Xq28 region, as the X chromosome is passed down to men exclusively from their mothers.
The gene or genes in the Xq28 region that influence sexual orientation have a limited and variable impact. Not all of the gay men in Bailey’s study inherited the same Xq28 region. The genes were neither sufficient, nor necessary, to make any of the men gay.
The flawed thinking behind a genetic test for sexual orientation is clear from studies of twins, which show that the identical twin of a gay man, who carries an exact replica of his brother’s DNA, is more likely to be straight than gay. That means even a perfect genetic test that picked up every gene linked to sexual orientation would still be less effective than flipping a coin.
While genes do contribute to sexual orientation, other multiple factors play a greater role, perhaps including the levels of hormones a baby is exposed to in the womb. “Sexual orientation has nothing to do with choice,” said Bailey. “We found evidence for two sets [of genes] that affect whether a man is gay or straight. But it is not completely determinative; there are certainly other environmental factors involved.”
Last year, before the latest results were made public, one of Bailey’s colleagues, Alan Sanders, said the findings could not and should not be used to develop a test for sexual orientation.
“When people say there’s a gay gene, it’s an oversimplification,” Sanders said. “There’s more than one gene, and genetics is not the whole story. Whatever gene contributes to sexual orientation, you can think of it as much as contributing to heterosexuality as much as you can think of it contributing to homosexuality. It contributes to a variation in the trait.”
Qazi Rahman, a psychologist at King’s College London, said the results were valuable for further understanding the biology of sexual orientation. “This is not controversial or surprising and is nothing people should worry about. All human psychological traits are heritable, that is, they have a genetic component,” he said. “Genetic factors explain 30 to 40% of the variation between people’s sexual orientation. However, we don’t know where these genetic factors are located in the genome. So we need to do ‘gene finding’ studies, like this one by Sanders, Bailey and others, to have a better idea where potential genes for sexual orientation may lie.”
Rahman rejected the idea that genetics research could be used to discriminate against people on the basis of their sexual orientation. “I don’t see how genetics would contribute more to the persecution, discrimination and stigmatisation of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people any more than social, cultural or learning explanations. Historically, the persecution and awful treatment of LGBT groups has been because politicians, religious leaders and societies have viewed sexual orientation as ‘choice’ or due to poor upbringing.”
On defense who is just so buttfuckingly awful that you just know he's going to cost us some touchdowns.
Gone are the days of Fua giving up 30 yard runs while getting pushed back into the gatorade table, or simply flailing while collapsing drunkenly to the ground like Cary Collins in a Charlotte bar circa 1998.
No more Nakamura with his 2 inch vertical letting a wounded fuging duck with 30 minutes of hang time somehow fly over his hands and into the receivers grasp.
No more Norman and his preference of playing behind the safety zone at the snap and his desire to dive in on already covered slot receivers on goal line game losing possessions.
We have done some amazing things with this defense. We have TWO UDFA rookies getting major playing time in our defensive secondary in White and Lester, TWO starting rookie tackles, and now a starting rookie 5th round OLB. That's almost 50% of our defensive starters that are Rookies.
But here's the key, along with those rookies we have solid vets that rotate in. Dwan, back from injury can spell KK and they don't lose a step - in fact he's still probably better than KK at this point in their respective careers. Mikell and Drayton Florence can step in at safety and corner respectively and play above solidly. Blackburn, once back from injury, provides stability outside at the LB position.
And on top of all that we have 4 super stars on defense. Hardy, Johnson, Keek and TD are absolutely top 5-10 in their respective positions in all of the NFL.
Sure we have some positions that are weaker than others, corner probably being the weakest, but they are servicable at worst and league average in actuality.
No more Fuas or Nakamuras. No more Everette Browns, Dan Connors, McClains, Richard Marshalls, or Sherrod Martins.
This Defense is legit and brings the pain. Kiss our ass haters, and eat the turf bitches.